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Groupe d'étude de marché

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Ethan Reed
Ethan Reed

Headlamps Sub Download

The elegant, high-power AXENDO-range distinguishes itself by its amazing styling, technology, light output and various power sources. It offers a perfect solution headlamp for each type of bicycle and for every cyclist. For city and e-bike practice, Spanninga offers the front fork AXENDO headlamps. These are available in 5 light output versions, ranging from 30 to 100 Lux. All of them have an amazing visibility distance from both front and lateral sides. The AXENDO 40 headlamp is available in an e-bike and dynamo version.

Headlamps sub download

Intertek is accredited by VCA (Vehicle Certification Agency), A2LA and AMECA to test automotive lighting, including headlamps, tail lamps, turn signals, reflectors, center high-mount stop lights (CHMSLs), warning lights, interior lighting and other products, to industry and OEM standards, including FMVSS, CMVSS, SAE, and JIS. We also test lighting for ATVs, agricultural equipment, snowmobiles, motorcycles and construction/industrial machinery.

As a grounding-breaking innovation, LED headlamps are for the time being to be found in the premium segment. In order to transfer LED headlamps to the volume segment, concepts must be developed which are aimed at reducing the currently very high development and parts costs, as well as further increasing the system efficiency. Based on the experience which Hella gained within the framework of the development of the first LED headlamp in the Cadillac Escalade Platinum, concepts and solutions for meeting future requirements in relation to LED headlamps are described here.

Other vehicles, such as trains and aircraft, are required to have headlamps. Bicycle headlamps are often used on bicycles, and are required in some jurisdictions. They can be powered by a battery or a small generator like a bottle or hub dynamo.

The earliest headlamps, fuelled by combustible gas such as acetylene gas or oil, operated from the late 1880s. Acetylene gas lamps were popular in 1900s because the flame is resistant to wind and rain. Thick concave mirrors combined with magnifying lenses projected the acetylene flame light.[4] A number of car manufacturers offered Prest-O-Lite calcium carbide acetylene gas generator cylinder with gas feed pipes for lights as standard equipment for 1904 cars.

The first electric headlamps were introduced in 1898 on the Columbia Electric Car from the Electric Vehicle Company of Hartford, Connecticut, and were optional. Two factors limited the widespread use of electric headlamps: the short life of filaments in the harsh automotive environment, and the difficulty of producing dynamos small enough, yet powerful enough to produce sufficient current.[5]

Peerless made electric headlamps standard in 1908. A Birmingham, England firm called Pockley Automobile Electric Lighting Syndicate marketed the world's first electric car-lights as a complete set in 1908, which consisted of headlamps, sidelamps, and tail lights that were powered by an eight-volt battery.[6]

Britain, Australia, and some other Commonwealth countries, as well as Japan and Sweden, also made extensive use of 7-inch sealed beams, though they were not mandated as they were in the United States.[8] This headlamp format was not widely accepted in continental Europe, which found replaceable bulbs and variations in the size and shape of headlamps useful in car design.

Technology moved forward in the rest of the world.[7][8] In 1962 a European consortium of bulb- and headlamp-makers introduced the first halogen lamp for vehicle headlamp use, the H1. Shortly thereafter headlamps using the new light source were introduced in Europe. These were effectively prohibited in the US, where standard-size sealed beam headlamps were mandatory and intensity regulations were low. US lawmakers faced pressure to act, due both to lighting effectiveness and to vehicle aerodynamics/fuel savings.[8] High-beam peak intensity, capped at 140,000 candela per side of the car in Europe,[9][10] was limited in the United States to 37,500 candela on each side of the car until 1978, when the limit was raised to 75,000.[11][12] An increase in high-beam intensity to take advantage of the higher allowance could not be achieved without a move to halogen technology,[11] and so sealed-beam headlamps with internal halogen lamps became available for use on 1979 models in the United States.[11][12]As of 2010[update] halogen sealed beams dominate the sealed-beam market, which has declined steeply since replaceable-bulb headlamps were permitted in 1983.[8]

Beyond the engineering, performance, and regulatory-compliance aspects of headlamps, there is the consideration of the various ways they are designed and arranged on a motor vehicle. Headlamps were round for many years because that is the native shape of a parabolic reflector. Using principles of reflection, the simple symmetric round reflective surface projects light and helps focus the beam.[15]

There was no requirement in Europe for headlamps of standardized size or shape, and lamps could be designed in any shape and size, as long as the lamps met the engineering and performance requirements contained in the applicable European safety standards. Rectangular headlamps were first used in 1960, developed by Hella for the German Ford Taunus P3 and by Cibié for the Citroën Ami 6. They were prohibited in the United States where round lamps were required until 1975.[7] Another early headlamp styling concept involved conventional round lamps faired into the car's bodywork with aerodynamic glass covers, such as those on the 1961 Jaguar E-Type, and on pre-1967 VW Beetles.[16]

An example arrangement includes the stacking of two headlamps on each side, with low beams above high beams. The Nash Ambassador used this arrangement in the 1957 model year.[24] Pontiac used this design starting in the 1963 model year; American Motors, Ford, Cadillac, and Chrysler followed two years later. Also in the 1965 model year, the Buick Riviera had concealable stacked headlamps. Various Mercedes models sold in America used this arrangement because their home-market replaceable-bulb headlamps were illegal in the US.

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, some Lincoln, Buick, and Chrysler cars had the headlamps arranged diagonally with the low-beam lamps outboard and above the high-beam lamps. British cars including the Gordon-Keeble, Jensen CV8, Triumph Vitesse, and Bentley S3 Continental used such an arrangement as well.[25]

In 1968, the newly initiated Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108 required all vehicles to have either the twin or quad round sealed beam headlamp system and prohibited any decorative or protective element in front of an operating headlamp. Glass-covered headlamps like those used on the Jaguar E-Type, pre-1968 VW Beetle, 1965 Chrysler and Imperial models, Porsche 356, Citroën DS, and Ferrari Daytona were no longer permitted, and vehicles had to be equipped with uncovered headlamps for the US market. This made it difficult for vehicles with headlamp configurations designed for good aerodynamic performance to achieve it in their US-market configurations.

In 1983, granting a 1981 petition from Ford Motor Company, the US headlamp regulations were amended to allow replaceable-bulb, nonstandard-shape, architectural headlamps with aerodynamic lenses that could for the first time be made of hard-coated polycarbonate. This allowed the first US-market car since 1939 with replaceable bulb headlamps: the 1984 Lincoln Mark VII. These composite headlamps were sometimes referred to as "Euro" headlamps since aerodynamic headlamps were common in Europe. Though conceptually similar to European headlamps with non-standardized shape and replaceable-bulb construction, these headlamps conform to the headlamp design, construction, and performance specifications of US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108 rather than the internationalized European safety standards used outside North America. Nevertheless, this change to US regulations made it possible for headlamp styling in the US market to move closer to that in Europe.

Later hidden headlamps require one or more vacuum-operated servos and reservoirs, with associated plumbing and linkage, or electric motors, geartrains and linkages to raise the lamps to an exact position to assure correct aiming despite ice, snow, and age. Some hidden headlamp designs, such as those on the Saab Sonett III, used a lever-operated mechanical linkage to raise the headlamps into position.

During the 1960s and 1970s, many notable sports cars used this feature such as the Chevrolet Corvette (C3), Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer and Lamborghini Countach as they allowed low bonnet lines but raised the lights to the required height, but since 2004 no modern volume-produced car models use hidden headlamps because they present difficulties in complying with pedestrian-protection provisions added to international auto safety regulations regarding protuberances on car bodies to minimize injury to pedestrians struck by cars.[28]

Modern headlamps are electrically operated, positioned in pairs, one or two on each side of the front of a vehicle. A headlamp system is required to produce a low and a high beam, which may be produced by multiple pairs of single-beam lamps or by a pair of dual-beam lamps, or a mix of single-beam and dual-beam lamps. High beams cast most of their light straight ahead, maximizing seeing distance but producing too much glare for safe use when other vehicles are present on the road. Because there is no special control of upward light, high beams also cause backdazzle from fog, rain and snow due to the retroreflection of the water droplets. Low beams have stricter control of upward light, and direct most of their light downward and either rightward (in right-traffic countries) or leftward (in left-traffic countries), to provide forward visibility without excessive glare or backdazzle.

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