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Artemy Biryukov
Artemy Biryukov


ALT Codes Character Counter Color Picker Cryptogram Maker CSS Extreme Makeover CSS Quick Reference Cut Sheet Weight Instant Spellcheck Word Finder Word Pattern Finder Wordlist Maker


9E FB AD DE 40 71 D4 EF 98 C9 69 EB 32 AF 85 48 64 60 2E 51 5D 65 01 FD E5 76 B3 10 96 4A 4F 7C 2C E8 42 AB EF AF C5 DC 9E 26 A6 19 BC F2 61 4F E0 73 75 B9 24 9B EF A0 9C FE E7 02 32 E7 5F FD 64 75 71 28 0C 76 FF CA 87 51 1A D2 55 B9 8A 6B 57 75 91 AF 01 D0 03 BD 6B F7 E1 FC E4 DF D2 0D 0D 02 97 ED 5E CA 25 DE 26 1F 37 EF E9 E1 75 FB 5F 12 D2 50 3D 8C FB 06 0A 63 13 85 11 FE 0E 12 5C F3 A6 43 AF D7 D6 6D CF 96 82 BD 24 6D DE A1

B6 16 45 ED FD 54 98 FB 24 64 44 03 7A 0F A1 8C 0F 10 1E BD 8E FA 54 57 3C E6 E6 A7 FB F6 3E D2 1D 66 34 08 52 B0 21 1C F5 EE F6 A1 CD 98 9F 66 AF 21 A8 EB 19 DB D8 DB C3 70 6D 13 53 63 A0 D6 83 D0 46 30 4F 5A 83 6B C1 BC 63 28 21 AF E7 A2 F7 5D A3 C5 0A C7 4C 54 5A 75 45 62 20 41 37 16 96 63 CF CC 0B 06 E6 7E 21 09 EB A4 1B C6 7F F2 0C C8 AC 80 D7 B6 EE 1A 95 46 5B 3B 26 57 53 3E A5 6D 92 D5 39 E5 06 43 60 EA 48 50 FE D2 D1 BF

I'm reading a video stream from a DVR that says h264 encoded. I thought I would find a standard packetized H264 FRAGMENT as described here but it looks like there is some kind of proprietary rule in this stream.

The stream has a header that starts with 0x31 (4x) and after some bytes that I don't know what they mean, the server sends slices of h264 raw data (0x00 0x00 0x00 0x01). I put this data in a raw.h264 file and I converted it to an mp4 movie using FFmpeg. I got a very bad quality video with green screen at most part of the time.

The DVR stream is composed by a header that starts with 0x31 0x31 0x31 0x31, In order to extract the video data you have to parse the stream looking for the header and after that for the SPS, PPS and Video Frame (most of them will have only the video frame). The necessary data to build your .h264 file will always start with 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x01 byte sequence.

Decode Base64 to file using the free online decoder, which allows you to preview files directly in the browser, as well as download them, get the hex dump for any binary data, and get summary information about the original file. Please note that the preview is available only for textual values and known media files such as images, sounds, and videos. In any case, you can always convert Base64 to binary and download the result as file, regardless of its MIME type. If you are looking for the reverse process, check File to Base64.

If you have any questions, remarks, need help, or just like this page, please feel free to let me know by leaving a comment using the form bellow.I will be happy to read every comment and, if necessary, I will do my best to respond as quickly as possible. Of course, spammers are welcome only as readers.

This article is part two of three covering encryption concepts and the Internet public key infrastructure (PKI). The first article in this series introduced symmetric and public key (asymmetric) encryption in cryptography. If you're not familiar with the basic concept of public-key encryption, you should read part one before you go ahead with this one.

In this part, I show you the basics of Transport Layer Security and Secure Socket Layer (TLS/SSL), how the Internet PKI works, and OpenSSL, the Swiss Army knife for TLS/SSL tasks. I cover how to use OpenSSL to create key-pairs and to generate a certificate signing request (CSR) to send to your certificate authority (CA) for signing. After that, I discuss some weaknesses of the Internet PKI you should be aware of.

Assume that you're a sysadmin like me and one of your tasks is to manage a webserver. Because your users care about authenticity, integrity, and privacy, you'd like to secure your web application with some kind of encryption.* You don't know in advance who's using your site, so symmetric encryption is off the table because of its key distribution problem. I use public-key encryption in the following sections instead.

The acronyms for Transport Layer Security and Secure Socket Layer are TLS and SSL. They are used interchangeably most of the time, and that's OK. While the old SSL protocol versions are deprecated, you'll usually find TLSv1.2 and TLSv1.3 on the web these days. TLS is used in HTTPS connections between some clients and some web servers. The following image shows a simple example of an HTTPS handshake.

First, the well-known TCP handshake happens between client and server. Then the client starts the HTTPS handshake by sending the ClientHello. In this step, the client transmits information about the server name it requests and the supported cipher suites. The server responds with the ServerHello, transmits a selected cipher suite, connection parameters, and sends information for calculating a symmetric key for the ongoing connection. Last but not least, it sends its certificate to authenticate itself to the client.

Focus on the certificate the server has transmitted to the client. It contains the server's public key, which the client uses to encrypt data before sending it to the server. A trusted Certificate Authority (CA) signed the public key in the certificate. Today, every operating system and web browser comes with a store containing the public keys of many different trusted CAs. These public keys are then used to verify the signatures in server certificates like the one discussed here. This way, the client can check the server's authenticity and that it is the correct host the client wants to connect to.

Be aware that public key encryption is used only to establish the HTTPS connections and calculate a symmetric session key used for further communication. That's because symmetric encryption is much faster than asymmetric.

So now the question is, how do you get the key-pair for the webserver? As stated earlier, OpenSSL is the Swiss Army knife for SSL and TLS tasks. Since its documentation has left some room for improvement, I suggest that you read the free book, OpenSSL Cookbook by Ivan Ristic to get all the details. My article focuses on creating a key-pair and a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) for a single domain name and a CSR that includes multiple domain names.

The CSR is needed to send the public key and other information about your domain to a CA for signing. The signed public key you'll get back is your certificate which you will install on your web server along with the corresponding private key.

You'll find both files in your current working directory. The passphrase you entered during the creation process protects your private key file. If you open them in some kind of text viewer, you'll only recognize that these are a private key and a CSR but won't find further plain text information:

Attention: Never share your private key(s) with anyone. They are yours and yours only. Keep them secret, safe, and sound. Follow your organization's policies for handling private keys, CSRs, and certificates. The security of your organization (and your job) may depend on it.

The first section [ req ] specifies that a private RSA key with 2048 bits is to be generated and stored as test_privatekey.pem. Also, the section contains information about finding the bits that you entered interactively in the earlier section of this article (in the section [ req_distinguished_name ]. In [ v3_req ], you'll find some constraints on keyUsage but more importantly, for this article, the parameter subjectAltName where the common name and all additional names are specified. Save it as openssl.cnf and run it with the following command to create a private key and CSR:

Whether you need only one domain name or more in your certificate, you now know how to generate the necessary CSR. For an in-depth understanding, I suggest that you refer to the book I recommended above.

Certification Authority (CA) - Verifies the identity of subscribers or their domains and issues certificates that could be installed on web servers. It also provides information about certificates that have been revoked.

Relying Party - This could be a web browser or some other kind of client which tries to validate the certificate sent by your web server. So-called trust anchors are used to verify the certificate. Trust anchors are certificates that are completely trusted and are kept in the browser's trusted CA store.

Remember what you already know about public-key encryption. You could use the private key to sign a message and use the corresponding public key to verify the signature. Something very similar happens when the CA signs your public key and issues your certificate.

The certificate itself is a data structure that includes some information about you or your organization. It contains the domain name, your public key, the name of the CA that issued the certificate, and the CA's signature. To give you an example, I'll show you the certificate that is currently in use on my personal blog and explain the most important sections of it (shortened for a better overview).

The part after "Certificate:" contains information like the serial number, the signature algorithm used to sign the public key, the name of the issuer, the timeframe in which this cert is valid, the domain name, and the public key. But look at the very first lines as they show the signing path:

What you see is the chain of trust. You could see that this certificate (the public key associated with the FQDN was signed by Let's Encrypt R3 (R3 is the name of the certificate) which in turn was signed by Digital Signature Trust Co. DST Root CA X3 (here DST Root CA X3 is the name of the certificate).

But how does your browser know whether to trust one of these certificates? The DST Root CA X3 certificate is stored in your browser's trust anchor. See the following image, which shows my browser's trust anchor: 041b061a72

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